Magyar Zene Music Quarterly
Vol. 58 , No. 3 - August 2019
The Eighteenth Century as a Music-Historical Period?
Period concepts and periodizations are constructions, or readings,
and hence always subject to reinterpretation. Many recent scholars have
privileged institutional and reception history over style and
compositional history, and periodized European music according to the ‘centuries’;
but these constructions are no less partial or tendentious than older
ones. Recent historiographical writings addressing these issues are
evaluated. If we wish to construe the eighteenth century as a music-
historical period, we must abandon the traditional notion that it was
bifurcated in the middle. Not only did the musical Baroque not last
beyond 1720 in most areas, but the years c1720–c1780 constituted a
period in their own right, dominated by the international ‘system’ of
Italian opera, Enlightenment ideals, neoclassicism, the galant and (after
c1760) the cult of sensibility. We may call this the ‘central’
eighteenth century. Furthermore, this period can be clearly
distinguished from preceding and following ones. The late Baroque
(c1670–c1720) was marked by the rationalization of Italian opera,
tragédie lyrique, the standardization of instrumental genres and the
rise of ‘strong’ tonality. The period c1780–c1830 witnessed the rise of
the ‘regulative work- concept’ (Goehr) and ‘pre-Romanticism’ (Dahlhaus),
and the Europewide triumph of ‘Viennese modernism’, including the first
autonomous instrumental music and a central role in the rise of the
modern (post- revolutionary) world, symbolized by Haydn’s sublime in The
Creation. A tripartite reading of a ‘long’ eighteenth- century in music
history along these lines seems more nearly adequate than either baroque/classical
or 1700–1800 as a single, undifferentiated period.
James Webster is the Goldwin Smith Professor Emeritus of Music at Cornell University (USA). He specializes in the history and theory of music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with a particular focus on Haydn. His other interests include Mozart (especially his operas), Beethoven, Schubert, and Brahms, as well as performance practice, editorial practice, and the historiography of music; in theory he specializes in issues of musical form (including analytical methodology) and Schenkerian analysis. He was a founding editor of the journal Beethoven Forum, and was musicological consultant for the recordings of Haydn’s symphonies on original instruments, by the Academy of Ancient Music under Christopher Hogwood. Among the many honors he has received are the Einstein and Kinkeldey Awards of the American Musicological Society, a Fulbright dissertation grant, two Senior Research Fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, a Guggenheim Fellowship, and a Research Fellowship of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (Germany). He has also held teaching appointments at Columbia and Brandeis Universities and in Germany at Freiburg and Berlin (Humboldt University). He served as President of the American Musicological Society. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of the Joseph Haydn Institute, and a member of the Board of Directors of the Johannes- Brahms- Gesamtausgabe, as well as a member of the editorial boards of the Cambridge Opera Journal and Eighteenth- Century Music.
JOHN A. RICE
The Morte: A Galant Voice- Leading Schema as Emblem of Lament and Compositional Building- Block
Eighteenth- century composers wrote many passages in which a treble
line rises from scale degrees 1 or 3 up to 5, while the bass descends
chromatically from 1 down to 5. The diverging lines reach an octave by
way of an augmented- sixth interval. These passages represent a voice-
leading schema analogous to those introduced by Robert O. Gjerdingen in
his book Music in the Galant Style. Following Gjerdingen’s use of
Italian words to refer to some of his schemata, I propose the word
‘Morte’ for this schema and survey its use by musicians, who relied on
it not only as an intensely expressive gesture that could effectively
enhance the most tragic moments of a work but also as a compositional
building- block: an ornate half cadence that they found especially
useful in transitional passages and development sections.
John A. Rice (b. 1956), a freelance writer and teacher is devoted to the exploration of music in eighteenth-and early nineteenth- century Europe. After studying music history under Daniel Heartz at the University of California, Berkeley (PhD, 1987) he taught at the University of Washington (1987–88), Colby College (1988–90), the University of Houston (1990–97), and the University of Texas at Austin (1999). More recently he has been a visiting professor at the University of Pittsburgh (2010–11) and the University of Michigan (2012–13). He has received grants from the Alexander- von- Humboldt Stiftung, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the American Philosophical Society. He has written many articles, reviews of books and musical editions, entries in musical encyclopedias and dictionaries, and six books, one of which, Antonio Salieri and Viennese Opera, received the Kinkeldey Award from the American Musicological Society. He has lectured widely in both the United States and Europe. He has served as president of the Mozart Society of America and of the Southwest Chapter of the AMS and as a director- at- large of the AMS. He is an elected member of the Akademie für Mozart- Forschung in Salzburg.
Clara Schumann’s Concerts in Pest- Buda as Reflected in the Contemporary Hungarian Press
Clara Schumann came five times to Pest- Buda: in 1856, 1858, 1866, 1868 and 1872. She gave 11 concerts of her own and played at some other occasions (for charity, for the royal family and in private soirées). A pianist of European fame, she was warmly welcomed by Hungarian audiences also as being Robert Schumann’s unfortunate wife who was supporting her family by her playing. Her concerts were always abundantly discussed in the press. She usually began with a Beethoven sonata, played some works by baroque masters (these were especially well received) and pieces from the romantic piano literature, including some music by Brahms from manuscript. Robert Schumann’s compositions figured in especially large numbers in her concerts, which gave an important impetus to the Schumann cult in Hungary. According to the unanimously enthusiastic press reviews in the 1850’s, her programmes of a high standard and value, so different from many of the usual virtuosos, and her technically perfect, but always classical, transparent and poetic rendering captivated audiences. She was put on the same height as Franz Liszt and regarded as the best female pianist of the time. The first cautiously critical reviews appeared in 1866: the warm poetic feeling seemed to diminish in her playing, but in her rendering of Robert Schumann’s works, she remained inimitably enchanting. In 1868, some reviews criticized her choice of programme, too, which always followed the well- known scheme and did not afford enough new elements. At her last concert in 1872, her evident decline was diplomatically but unambigously stated. This paper affords an abundant choice from the Hungarian press about Clara Schumann, and attempts to give a complete survey of her concerts and their programmes in the Appendices.
Mária Eckhardt (b. 1943, Budapest), musicologist and choral
conductor accomplished her studies in 1966 at the Budapest Liszt Academy
of Music. 1966–1973 she was librarian and associate scholar at the
National Széchényi Library, Department of Music, 1973–1986 research
fellow at the Institute of Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, Department of 19th Century Hungarian Music. As founding
director of the Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum and Research Centre of the
Liszt Academy of Music, she directed this institute from its opening in
September 1986 until May 2009; she continued her work there as Chief
Counsellor and Research Director until her retirement in December 2013.
Her major publications include books and studies on Liszt and composers
of his time, exhibition catalogues, editions of
The Folk Music of the Karachay People of the North Caucasus
Hungarian folk music is closely connected with the music of diverse
Turkic peoples. Research into this interaction has already produced
considerable results, but it is far from being completed. Intriguing new
questions are being raised by continuous inquiry, e.g.: Why is the music
of different Turkic ethnic groups so different? Do the linguistic
connections of this language family correspond to the musical
János Sipos is senior research fellow of the Institute for Musicology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and lectures at the Liszt University of Music in Budapest. He is also the Hungarian Representative of the International Council of Traditional Music. His main research area is the comparative study of the folk music of Turkic speaking people and also the exploration of its Hungarian connections. His collecting work began in 1987, where Béla Bartók stopped in 1936, and since then he has collected, recorded and analyzed more than ten thousand Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, Karachay, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Navajo and Dakota melodies. His 18 books, 138 articles and hundreds of hours of video and audio recordings can be studied at www.zti.hu/sipos.