Magyar Zene Music Quarterly

 

 

 

 

Magyar Zene

Hungarian Language Music Quarterly

 

Vol. 58 , No. 2 - May 2019

 

 

Contents

 

Articles

 
ZOLTÁN SZABÓ  
Elveszett Bach- kéziratok fennmaradt árnyképei?
J. S. Bach vonós szólódarabjainak J. P. Kellnertől származó másolata –újraértékelés
125
Surviving Shadows of Lost Bach Manuscripts?
Works by Bach for Solo String Instruments Copied by J. P. Kellner –a Re- assessment (Abstract)
139
KATA RISKÓ  
A magyar népies zene Erkel operáiban 140
Folk- like Musical Elements in Ferenc Erkel’s Operas (Abstract) 167
MARTIN ELEK  
Erkel Ferenc első operai hangszerelése
Mercadante Il giuramentója a Nemzeti Színházban
168
Ferenc Erkel’s First Operatic Orchestration
Mercadante’s Il Giuramento at the National Theatre (Abstract)
197
MÁRTON KERÉKFY  
A Bartók- kórusok kritikai kiadásának margójára
Új adatok a Székely népdalok keletkezéstörténetéhez
199
Apropos the Critical Edition of Bartók’s Choral Works
New Data on the Genesis of Székely Folk Songs (Abstract)
212

Work in Progress

 
ANIKÓ VÁSZKA  
Bartók hangszerelése két színpadi művének tükrében
A táncjáték és a némajáték hangszerelésének tipológiája
213
Bartók’s Orchestration in his Two Stage Works
The Typology of The Wooden Prince’s and The Miraculous Mandarin’s Instrumentation(Abstract)
233

 

 

The whole issue (pdf)

 

 

 

ABSTRACTS

 

 

ZOLTÁN SZABÓ

Surviving Shadows of Lost Bach Manuscripts?
Works by Bach for Solo String Instruments Copied by J. P. Kellner –a Re- assessment

 

Johann Peter Kellner has long since been recognised as one of the most prolific copyists of J. S. Bach’s works. Copies of at least forty- six Bach compositions survive in Kellner’s hand, while many more have been lost. Most of his surviving copies were of organ and clavier compositions of Johann Sebastian, although there are some notable non- keyboard works amongst his copies as well. The best known of these are the two sets for solo string instruments: the six Cello Suites and the Violin Partitas and Sonatas. Kellner was a skilled organist and cantor, but without prominent expertise in playing a string instrument; therefore the reasons behind his endeavour to make these copies are intriguing. According to handwriting studies, both sets of copies stem from the same period, yet internal evidence suggests that they seem to have been based on models of very different calibre. As neither of those models survived, any evidence pointing to what authorial script Kellner actually copied can only be circumstantial. Kellner’s dependability as a scribe has often been questioned in the past because of his obvious copying mistakes. However, a re- evaluation of the evidence suggests that the problem may have been not his copying but the quality of the exemplars he was working from. If that is true, then the authority of his copies may need to be significantly reassessed. This paper will take a fresh look at his work as mirrored in his copies of the Violin and Cello Solos.

 

Zoltán Szabó is a cellist and musicologist, educated in Budapest and Cincinnati. As a member of the Budapest Trio, he visited Australia in 1985 to give a series of concerts at the Sydney Festival. After the tour, he was offered a position with the Australian Chamber Orchestra and he has been living in Sydney ever since. He has performed extensively at festivals and recitals in Europe, America and Australia, with the Budapest Trio and later with the Bergonzi String Quartet. He worked as Principal Cello with Opera Australia between 1992–2013. In 2000, a Churchill Fellowship enabled him to study baroque cello and performance practice in Europe. He has taught cello, chamber music and more recently, music history and musicology at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music since 2003. In 2017, he was awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) at the University of Sydney; his thesis is on the source and edition history of the Solo Cello Suites by J. S. Bach. He has also published several articles on this subject. With over 100 concert, opera and theatre reviews to his credit, he has been a regular contributor to Bachtrack (London), The Conversation and The Australian Book Review. His book and CD reviews have been published in professional journals, such as Eighteenth- Century Music and Early Music. He regularly gives pre- concert talks for Musica Viva and for the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.

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KATA RISKÓ

Folk- like Musical Elements in Ferenc Erkel’s Operas

 

Due to the desire to create a national culture, several new phenomena appeared in the Hungarian music life of the 1840s. Educated people became increasingly interested in folk songs, folk dances and rural life in general. New genres were born, such as the folk play, the national ballroom- dance and the ‘csárdás’, a new dance that was based on folk dances and referred to peasant life also in its name. In art music, composers often quoted folk genres or folk tunes in their pieces and folklike melodies and topoi were included in the operas of e.g. Ferenc and Károly Doppler, Károly Thern and Károly Huber, too. The impact of these purposes can be observed also in the works of Ferenc Erkel written after Hunyadi László. Besides participating in the construction of some folk plays from 1844 on, the composer used some Hungarian topoi and folklike elements in his operas, namely in the second act written by Erkel of the rather occasional opera entitled Erzsébet composed together with the Doppler- brothers, Bánk bán, and Sarolta which can be regarded as the end of a compositional period. Such elements are the characteristic rhythm of the ‘csárdás’, the ‘dűvô’ accompaniment typical of folk and Gypsy bands, certain folk song type melodies, a genre quoting the shepherd’s flute and the use of certain instruments. While most of them had been present in Hungarian art music in the mid- nineteenth century, the preference for evoking certain descending melody types often with the mark of a fifth- transposition seems to be a special feature of Erkel’s Hungarian style. This study focuses on the sources of these folk- like elements, their role in Erkel’s works and how the composer elaborated them in the service of dramatic expression.

 

Kata Riskó (b. 1985), musicologist, ethnomusicologist. She has been working as a reseacher at the Folk Music Department of the Institute for Musicology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences since 2012. She studied musicology at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest (2003–2008), attended the same institution’s Doctoral Programme in Musicology, and defended her PhD dissertation on the problems of the transmission of several instrumental folk dance tunes in 2019. Her research interests include the connection between folk music and art music in the works of e.g. Haydn, Liszt, Erkel, Bartók, historical and comparative study of instrumental folk music, and Gypsy music. She won the Zoltán Kodály scholarship in musicology on three occasions, and the New National Excellence Programme scholarship in 2017.

 

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MARTIN ELEK

Ferenc Erkel’s First Operatic Orchestration
Mercadante’s Il Giuramento at the National Theatre
 

The seminal year 1837 marks a milestone in Hungarian theatre and opera history: the opening of the Hungarian Theatre of Pest (later National Theatre) ushered in a new epoch of artistic professionalism. The theatre’s establishment ultimately engendered substantial improvements in performance standards and the art forms’ domestic prestige. Nevertheless, the forerunning seasons were beset with difficulties. Issues such as recruitment, financial resources and repertoire development all posed challenges to the budding organisation. Attempting to navigate such obstacles meant adhering to the haphazard modus operandi of travelling troupes. A cavalier attitude consequently characterised the institution’s early activities regarding the authenticity of performance materials. Although small- scale instrumental reworking was a frequent phenomenon in the theatre’s early years, we have knowledge of but one complete re- orchestration. Remarkably, that event coincided with the young Ferenc Erkel’s first venture into large- scale orchestral instrumentation. In 1839, the theatre staged Saverio Mercadante’s Il giuramento in an orchestration by Erkel and the violinist Ferenc Kirchlehner, initiating a performance history of two and a half decades. This study explores the conception of this orchestration and its ensuing reception, drawing on hitherto unexamined archival documents and musical sources. Furthermore, it incorporates a musical analysis of Erkel’s instrumentation.

 

Martin Elek read musicology at the Liszt Academy of music (Budapest), receiving highest honours in both his BA and MA diplomas. He joined the Department for Hungarian Music History of the Institute for Musicology (Research Centre for the Humanities of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) in October of 2016, engaging in the diverse activities of the department in his capacity as a professional member of staff. He has recently embarked upon doctoral study at the University of Cambridge, pursuing his primary research interest which centres on performance practice in the 19th and 20th centuries. In particular, his research is concerned with orchestral and instrumental repertoires. He also regularly publishes operatic and concert reviews in the Hungarian musical press and writes programme notes for  the Liszt Academy Concert Centre.

 

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MÁRTON KERÉKFY

Apropos the Critical Edition of Bartók’s Choral Works
New Data on the Genesis of Székely Folk Songs

 

Drawing from evidence of source studies and Bartók correspondence, this article provides new data on the genesis of Székely Folk Songs (BB 106, 1932), Béla Bartók’s last choral work based on folk music, and points out textual problems that arise from the rather complicated source situation of the work.

It appears that Bartók composed what eventually became the second part (movements 3–6) of the work in November 1932 to a commission from Schweizerischer Arbeiter- Sängerverband [Swiss Workers’ Singing Association]. This Association published a large anthology for male choirs (Liederbuch für Männerchor, vol. III), including Bartók’s setting in German translation under the title ‘Drei ungarische Volkslieder aus Siebenbürgen’ [Three Hungarian Folk Songs from Transylvania] in 1933, probably in the summer. The printed version differs at some points from both Bartók’s autograph manuscript and its earliest extant set of proofs, presenting something of a simplified version. Although we do not know whether the simplifications were suggested by the unknown editor of the anthology or the composer himself, we have no reason to assume that the changes were made without Bartók’s consent, and therefore the version published in the Liederbuch should be considered authentic.

This notwithstanding, Bartók must have considered the ‘Swiss version’ merely as an interim version, because after sending off the score he added two further movements (the final movements I–II) to the autograph manuscript. According to the dating of the autograph, this happened still in 1932. Bartók wanted Universal Edition, Vienna, to publish the full version with Hungarian and German words with the music engraved, but the publisher, expecting low sales, was reluctant to do so. In the end, Székely Folk Songs was published in late 1938, six years after its completion, with Hungarian words only and in rather poor quality, by the Budapest company Magyar Kórus. The concluding section of the article addresses specific textual problems that stem from errors in and discrepancies between first edition and surviving manuscript sources.

 

Márton Kerékfy is Research Fellow at the Budapest Bartók Archives, Editor of the Béla Bartók Complete Critical Edition, and Editor- in- Chief at Editio Musica Budapest. He translated into Hungarian and edited Ligeti’s selected writings (2010), co- edited György Ligeti’s Cultural Identities (2017), and authored Népzene és nosztalgia Ligeti György művészetében [Folk Music and Nostalgia in György Ligeti’s Art] (2018). He has published articles on the music of Ligeti and Bartók in, among others, Tempo, Studia Musicologica, and Mitteilungen der Paul Sacher Stiftung.

 

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ANIKÓ VÁSZKA

Bartók’s Orchestration in his Two Stage Works
The Typology of The Wooden Prince’s and The Miraculous Mandarin’s Instrumentation

 

Béla Bartók’s one- act ballet The Wooden Prince (BB 74) and his one- act pantomime The Miraculous Mandarin (BB 82) are both composed for large orchestra. Although these theatrical pieces have been compared in many ways, their orchestration has not been discussed yet. Therefore this paper examines some of the selected aspects of these two works: such as the role and significance of the orchestra and instruments. The investigation has a double aim: first to try and find the connection between the instruments and characters, and second, to attempt to analyse the ballet (1917) in parallel with the pantomime (1924) showing the similarities and differences, as well as giving an account of Bartók’s compositional style. While examining these compositions I discovered some similar characteristics e.g. the grotesque gestures of the wooden prince and the old rake – their rhythm and their instrumentation are comparable – and the significance of some instruments e.g. the clarinet during alluring scenes, or the trumpet during commands.

 

Anikó Vászka (1985) graduated in 2011 with MA from the Musicology Department of the Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music in Cluj- Napoca (Kolozsvár), Romania. She attended doctoral studies in musicology at the Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music in Budapest (2013–2016). She is writing her dissertation on Béla Bartók’s instrumentation in his orchestral works.

 

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