Magyar Zene Music Quarterly

 

 

 

 

Magyar Zene

Hungarian Language Music Quarterly

 

Vol. 58 , No. 1 - February 2019

 

 

Contents

 

Essay

 
KATALIN KOMLÓS  
Előadói stílusok történeti vizsgálata:
új diszciplína a zenetudományban?
5
The Historical Examination of Performance Styles:
A New Discipline in Musicology? (Abstract)
13

Articles

 
PÁL HORVÁTH  
Énekesjátéktól a magyar operáig

A Béla futása előadásai, forrásai és változatai

14
From Singspiel to Hungarian Opera
Béla futása [Bélas Flucht]. Performances, Sources, and Drafts (Abstract)
30
PÉTER BOZÓ  
„A Wagnernek megtiltani nem lehet…”

A zeneszerző fogadtatásának komolytalan aspektusai a Borsszem Jankóban

31
‘For Wagner, It Cannot Be Forbidden…’
The Unserious Aspects of the Composer’s Reception in the Hungarian Satirical
Magazine
Borsszem Jankó (Abstract)
45
ANNA DALOS  
Kodály szolmizál

A Kodály- módszer létrejöttének első időszakáról

46
Kodály and Solmization
On the First Period of the Creation of the Kodály- Method (Abstract)
55
FERENC JÁNOS SZABÓ  
A magyar nemzeti hangtár létrehozására irányuló törekvések (1908–2000)
2. rész
56
The History of Efforts to Create a Hungarian National Sound Archive
(1908–2000) – Part Two (Abstract)
67
JÓZSEF BRAUER- BENKE  
A cimbalom hangszertípus történetének forráskritikai elemzése 68
A Source Critical Analysis of the History of the Cimbalom (Abstract) 93

Short Contributions

 
ANDREA KOVÁCS  
De Ierusalem exeunt reliquiae
Egy körmeneti antifóna szövegváltozatai
94
De Ierusalem Exeunt Reliquiae
Textual Variants of a Processional Antiphon (Abstract)
100
ISTVÁN LANTOS SZABÓ  
Passamezo vom Vngern

Egy vélhetően Bakfark Bálinthoz kapcsolható lantdarab és rekonstrukciója

101
Passamezo vom Vngern
On a Lute Piece Attributed to Bálint Bakfark and its Reconstruction (Abstract)
111
LÁSZLÓ GOMBOS  
A „kiválasztott hölgy”

A megváltó nőiség szerepe Szokolay Sándor operáiban

101
The ‘Chosen Lady’
The Function of Redeeming Womanhood in Sándor Szokolay’s Operas (Abstract)
111

 

 

The whole issue (pdf)

 

 

 

ABSTRACTS

 

 

KATALIN KOMLÓS

The Historical Examination of Performance Styles:
A New Discipline in Musicology?

 

A good part of the musicological publications of the past 10–20 years deals with the history, and the theoretical and practical questions of musical interpretation. Among the subjects treated we find the analysis of old recordings, the dichotomy of notated and sounded music, and the rise, transformation, and reappearance of performing habits and fashions. This area, that was considered of secondary importance, and even unsuitable for objective evaluation in former musicological thought, claims scholarly rank today, due to interdisciplinary research, computer technology, and comparative analysis, both historic and aesthetic.

The article, through a survey of the current international trends, seeks to examine the question (even if cannot offer an answer), whether scholarly methods can grasp the infinitely complex nature of musical interpretation.

 

Katalin Komlós, musicologist and fortepiano recitalist, received her diploma at the Musicology Department of the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. She has been on the faculty of the same insitution since 1973; at present, she is Professor Emerita. Katalin Komlós received her PhD degree in musicology from Cornell University in 1986 (‘The Viennese Keyboard Trio in the 1780s’). As a result of further scholarly achievements, she became Doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1998. Prof. Komlós has written extensively on the history of eighteenth- century keyboard instruments and styles.

Her book Fortepianos and Their Music was published by Oxford University Press in 1995. Recently, her name has appeared among the contributors to The Cambridge Companion to Mozart (2003), The Cambridge Companion to Haydn (2005), Mozart’s Chamber Music with Keyboard (Cambridge, 2012), and Engaging Haydn: Culture, Context, and Criticism (Cambridge, 2012). In addition to research and teaching, Prof. Komlós has pursued a fortepianist concert career as well.

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PÁL HORVÁTH

From Singspiel to Hungarian Opera
Béla futása [Bélas Flucht]. Performances, Sources, and Drafts

 

Opened in 1821, the Theatre of Kolozsvár (today: Cluj, Romania) was the first permanent theatre where Hungarian stage productions were continuously performed. And the play entitled Béla futása [Bélas Flucht], written by the theatre conductor József Ruzitska, was the first Singspiel in Hungarian the music of which has been fully preserved. Its significance is shown not only by the many performances (and related revised versions) that followed the premiere but also by the existence of later renewals and revisions. This study traces the history of the early performances of Béla futása through a presentation of the sources, from the first performance in Kolozsvár to the renewal that took place in 1838 at the Hungarian Theatre of Pest, focusing on the versions that can be reconstructed on the basis of the three full scores extant from the nineteenth century. Each of these scores is connected with a prominent figure in the early days of the Hungarian itinerant theatrical world. Elek Pály, József Szerdahelyi, and József Heinisch were members of the same theatrical company for a long time, yet the scores preserve differing versions of the piece. Two of them – one in Szerdahelyi’s handwriting currently in Kolozsvár and the score owned by Pály, shown by an entry to be the owner – contain the early Singspiel- version, while a score in Heinisch’ handwriting is a different revision made subsequently, embedded in the Italian opera tradition, and which may have been of special interest to Ferenc Erkel when he was planning his first opera.

 

Pál Horváth studied musicology and conducting at the Liszt Academy of Music (Budapest). Since the
beginning of 2014, he has done research into the sources of early Hungarian musical theatre at the
Department for Hungarian Music History of the Institute for Musicology, Research Centre for the
Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In January 2016 he became a Research Assistant member
of the same Department. He contributes to the preparatory work of the critical edition of Ferenc Erkel
Operas, to the Department’s scholarly publications (as assistant editor), and, in addition, to basic
research dealing with the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He is writing a PhD- thesis on the subject
of Opera Composers in the Workshop of the National Theatre in the Vicinity of Ferenc Erkel (1837–1861).

 

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PÉTER BOZÓ

‘For Wagner, It Cannot Be Forbidden…’

The Unserious Aspects of the Composer’s Reception in the Hungarian Satirical Magazine Borsszem Jankó
 

The period when Hans Richter was active as conductor at the Pest National Theatre (1871–1875), was the heyday of political satirical magazines in the history of the Hungarian press. One of them was Borsszem Jankó (Johnny Peppercorn), founded in 1868 and edited by the medical specialist, writer and journalist, Adolf Ágai (Rosenzweig; 1836–1916). Ágai’s magazine regularly published fake news and caricatures concerning the works and reception of Richard Wagner, whose music was more intensively cultivated in Budapest under Richter’s conductorship than earlier. In my study I try to contextualize and interpret the articles published in Borsszem Jankó about Wagner and Wagnerians, in order to demonstrate some important and characteristic traits of the composer’s Hungarian reception. Among other things, I argue that the partly ideological conflict between Richter and such Hungarian musicians as Kornél Ábrányi, Ede Reményi and Nándor Plotényi might have played a significant role in Richter’s departure from Budapest.

 

Péter Bozó is a research fellow at the Institute for Musicology of the Research Centre for the Humanities of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and the Editor- in- Chief of Studia Musicologica. As a Bolyai Scholar (2014–2017), he has researched the Hungarian reception of Jacques Offenbach’s music. The book version of his doctoral dissertation on Franz Liszt’s songs (2010) was published as A dalszerzô Liszt (The song composer Liszt) by Rózsavölgyi & Co. in 2017, and awarded the György Kroó Plaquette of the Hungarian Musicological Society.

 

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ANNA DALOS

Kodály and Solmization
On the First Period of the Creation of the Kodály- Method

 

The use of solmization in musical pedagogy is connected to the name of Zoltán Kodály worldwide. However, this study does not aim to investigate the different musical pedagogical sources of the Kodály method. It looks primarily for the political and cultural background of the method, and tries to answer the question why Kodály turned to musical pedagogy. The study aims at revealing the historical context that made possible the development of the method. Similarly, this study examines the question of what musical benefit Kodály recognized in the method of solmization. Following this question, the study turns to the issues of clear singing, of the development of hearing and musical memory, as well as the problems of monophony and polyphony in singing.

 

Anna Dalos studied musicology at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest (1993–1998), and attended the Doctoral Programme in Musicology of the same institution (1998–2002). She spent a year on a German exchange scholarship (DAAD) at Humboldt University, Berlin (1999–2000). A winner of the ‘Lendület’ grant of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, she is head of the Archives and Research Group for 20th–21st Century Hungarian Music at the Institute of Musicology. Her research focuses on 20th century music, and the history of composition and musicology in Hungary. Her book on Zoltán Kodály’s poetics was published in 2007, and a collection of her essays on Kodály in 2013.

 

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FERENC JÁNOS SZABÓ

The History of Efforts to Create a Hungarian National Sound Archive (1908–2000) – Part Two

 

Despite the fact that the first Hungarian sound recordings were made at the end of the 19th century, a Hungarian National Sound Archive does not exist even today. The idea of a collection of Hungarian sound recordings with an institutional background was first raised in 1908, and the creation of a Hungarian National Sound Archive was recommended and endorsed from the 1930s by individuals, such as, museologists, composers, ethnomusicologists, private record collectors, sound recording experts, politicians, journalists and librarians, or institutions like the Hungarian Radio or the Hungarian Branch of the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres (IAML). During the twentieth century, the plans changed a lot; various things were taken into consideration: different points of view (ethnographical, musicological, discographical etc.), different dimensions, and different technical backgrounds from the possibilities of the 1930s to an online database.
In the present article I give a chronological overview of these efforts and their contexts, with some consideration of projects which can be regarded as their offshoots, like Béla Bartók’s contribution at the Commission Internationale de Coopération Intellectuelle of the League of Nations in Geneva, the so- called Patria Series, the Hungarian Radio’s collection or the planned record collection of the Royal Hungarian Opera. I discuss the planned projects on the basis of archive documents, the daily press, the specialist literature, and, in some cases, with the help of interviews. This survey will demonstrate the progress of how the ideas of collecting Hungarian sound recordings developed during the 20th century and how the different institutions joined the issue of the national sound archive. It also demonstrates the attitude towards sound recordings of personalities such as Béla Bartók and László Lajtha.

 

Ferenc János Szabó DLA, PhD (1985, Pécs), pianist and musicologist. Studied piano at the Ferenc Liszt Music Academy (Budapest) and chamber music at Kunstuniversität Graz. He has doctor’s degrees DLA as pianist (2012) and PhD in musicology (2018) (both summa cum laude). He is a founding member of the THReNSeMBle contemporary chamber music ensemble and the piano trio ‘Trio Duecento Corde’. As a pianist, he has won several prizes at international chamber music competitions. Since March 2013, he has been senior lecturer and coach at the Ferenc Liszt Music Academy in the class of Éva Marton and Andrea Meláth. Since September 2011, he has worked at the Institute for Musicology (Research Centre for the Humanities, The Hungarian Academy of Sciences). His research fields are the history of Hungarian sound recordings and performance practice. He has been awarded postdoctoral scholarships from the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music (2013) and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (2013–2015), and the Zoltán Kodály Scholarship for young musicologists (2016–2018).

 

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JÓZSEF BRAUER- BENKE

 

A Source Critical Analysis of the History of the Cimbalom

 

The cimbalom has been characterized as ‘an ancient musical instrument probably originating in Assyria and certainly in Asia’, a tenaciously held yet wrong idea that provided the justification for its inclusion in 2016 in the register of Hungarian national cultural heritage. A critical assessment of historical data seems to indicate that the cimbalom as an instrument type is neither ancient nor conclusively shown to originate in Asia. Although a distant antecedent might have been the angular harp and the triangular frame harp, and their later descendant the psaltery, the percussion stringed instrument known today as the hammered dulcimer emerged in the eastern Alps region in the mid-15th century. We also have to reconsider the earlier view that the hammered dulcimer type of instrument spread over the Hungarian- speaking area through Turkish contacts in the 16th century, since, given the absence of visual representations, an analysis of the context of references to czimbalmos, cymbalum, cimbolium in all probability suggests a smaller cymbal type attached to the fingers (zil) rather than the percussion stringed instrument type of later times. The hammered dulcimer appeared only in the late 17th or early 18th century from countries to the west, owing to the influence of Jewish and Gypsy ensembles following the example of contemporary fourmember peasant ensembles (violin, contra violin, hammered dulcimer and cello), the so- called Appenzeller Streichmusik. The instrument was widely adopted due to the Gypsy ensembles, and it came to be seen as a ‘national’ instrument during the vogue of national romanticism in the 19th century. Thanks to this process, Vencel József Schunda developed in 1874 the concert cimbalom from earlier models, a new type of instrument capable of being utilized for the multiple purposes of national operas, classical music and modern musical forms.

 

József Brauer- Benke (Budapest, 1970) studied ethnography, folklore, cultural anthropology, and African studies at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest from 1995–2000, and from 2001–2004 he completed the Doctoral Programme in European Ethnology at the same institution. His doctoral dissertation examined the history of Hungarian folk musical instruments. He has been a lecturer in the African Studies Programme at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest from 2003–2008, and has lectured at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music since 2008. He also worked in the Laczkó Dezsô Museum in Veszprém from 2006–2007 as resident ethnographer and museologist. He currently holds an appointment as organologist and museologist at the Institute for Musicology in the Research Centre for the Humanities at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His publications focus on folk musical instruments and the history of
folk society. His book about African folk musical instruments appeared in 2007, followed in 2014 by a typology and historical overview of the musical instruments of the Carpathian basin that was published in English translation in 2018. He is currently involved in comparative research into the history of European and African folk musical instruments.

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ANDREA KOVÁCS

De Ierusalem Exeunt Reliquiae
Textual Variants of a Processional Antiphon

 

It is well- known that in the Middle Ages, outside the Litany of Holy Saturday, the texts of the rhymed Litanies sung returning from the station in the processions of St Mark’s Day (Blessing of the Wheat) and the Rogation Days were also adapted to local liturgical demands and expectations. The texts of Ardua spes and Humili prece might be supplemented with poems about local saints or patrons of the churches involved in the procession. The consequence of this type of adaptation was that these updating Litanies would have used an unchanged form only at their original place of destination, so that the interpolated sections can be a starting point for determining the provenance of an unknown manuscript. While the structure and text of the Litanies not only allowed, but almost demanded, the abandonment of certain verses and the insertion of others, the Antiphons without any individualization or naming did not require this. A procession with relics was not about the patron saint, not about only a single saint glorified, but about the whole army of saints, their help, and about the Holy City and was sung in every tradition with essentially the same texts. The fact that processional Antiphons were updated and adapted to local circumstances was not known. But in the late Processionals of Zagreb the Antiphon De Ierusalem exeunt reliquiae has a whole homogeneous textual variant (huic patriae instead of huic civitati). In another precisely delineated tradition, the Ambrosian rite behaved similarly after the 10th century appearance of the Antiphon. The textual variant huic plebi or huic plebi tuae shows up in the rite around Milan in the 11th century in the Processions of Rogation days and of the Dedication feast. That this particular manifestation of identity was conscious, local, and unique indicates that neither the Zagreb nor the Ambrosian variants had parallels elsewhere. We currently know of one more textual variant whose only Hungarian source is the Gradual written by Franciscus de Futak. In this Codex at the parallel place of the Antiphon is the phrase huic monasterio. Unlike the Zagreb and Ambrosian variants, this term has parallels in 10–11th century German Benedictine Codices. Outside this geographical region, the variant is almost wholly unknown and currently the textual variant is unknown in any secular source.

 

Andrea Kovács graduated in the pedagogy of music theory and choir conducting (1993) and in church music (1998) at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. She earned her doctoral degree (DLA) at the same university in 2002. Between 2003 and 2006 she worked as a research fellow at the Church Music Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Liszt Academy of Music, then from 2007 at the Early Music Department of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Since 2009 she has been a research fellow, since 2015 a senior research fellow and head of the Church Music Research Group of the University. Her publications comprise several volumes and articles on medieval plainchant. Her main research fields include musical sources of the medieval Divine Office and Mass, the scholarly analysis and reconstruction of the Gregorian Office traditions of Hungary, comprehensive critical editions of Gregorian genres and transcribed editions of sources

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STVÁN LANTOS SZABÓ

Passamezo vom Vngern
On a Lute Piece Attributed to Bálint Bakfark and its Reconstruction

 

The 16th century lute book Dohna contains a lute piece called Passamezo vom Vngern notated in German lute tablature. Researchers associate it with the Hungarian lute player Balint Bakfark. The lute manuscript was lost or destroyed during World War II and until recently only the beginning motif from Passamezo vom Vngern was known. However, a sketch of the full- length transcript of the piece has appeared recently among the manuscript notes of the music historian Otto Gombosi. This article presents his research results on the lute piece and its source, and then uses Gombosi’s transcript and notes to present the reconstructed work in modern score and German lute tablature

 

stván Lantos Szabó (b. Istvan Szabo, 1953) graduated in 1976 as a high school teacher in mathematics and physics at Eötvös Loránd University. In addition to his work as a teacher, he has given concerts as a performer of renaissance and baroque lute music. Szabo has recorded several music albums, radio and TV programmes with Hungarian and foreign early music ensembles and soloists. He presents the results of his researches into Hungarian lute music and song poetry history primarily in concerts and recordings of the Trio Vagantes (founded in 1989). Details of his research appear in scholarly articles and published scores.

 

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LÁSZLÓ GOMBOS

The ‘Chosen Lady’
The Function of Redeeming Womanhood in Sándor Szokolay’s Operas

 

By his own account, Sándor Szokolay fell definitively in love with the female voice in the early 1960’s, while working on his oratorio Istar pokoljárása (Istar’s hell ride). In the majority of his subsequent operas he offered a favoured role to one of the female characters who redeems the protagonist(s) or indeed the country in some concrete or symbolic sense. However, the genuine object of redemption may have been the composer himself who received inspiration, also directly, from the physical impact of the voice. Following the title character of Istar pokoljárása and the Mother of Vérnász (Blood Wedding), he richly depicts the figure of Delila in Sámson; the title character of Szávitri (Savitri) even brings back her lover from death, while the heroine of the opera Margit (Margaret) sacrifices herself for the entire people. The study investigates Szokolay’s redeeming females and their roles played in the prominent works of his oeuvre.

 

László Gombos, born in 1967, graduated from the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest in 1990 (as a choral conductor) and in 1995 (in musicology); in 1995–98 he took part in the musicological PhD programme of the Liszt Academy. He taught music history at the University of Debrecen from 1998 to 2002, and since 1995 he has been teaching at the Béla Bartók Conservatory in Budapest. Since 1994 he has been a member of the research staff at the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest (20th century department, from 2002 at the Ernô Dohnányi Archives and since 2008 at the Museum of Music History). His main area of interest is Hungarian music of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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