Magyar Zene Music Quarterly

 

 

 

 

Magyar Zene

Hungarian Language Music Quarterly

 

Vol. 56 , No. 2 - May 2018

 

 

Contents

 

Articles

 
KATALIN KOMLÓS  
Két hangnem- meghatározó harmóniai portál a funkciós zenében 121
Two Tonality- Defining Harmonic Portals in Western Art Music (Abstract) 138
YUSUKE NAKAHARA  
A zenei rend diadala?
Az inspiráció forrásainak sokfélesége a 44 duó két hegedűre 37. darabjában
139
A Triumph of Musical Order?
Multiple Sources of Inspiration in Forty- Four Duos, No. 37 (Abstract)
160
ISTVÁN PÁVAI  
Kodály Zoltán és a magyar tánc 161
Zoltán Kodály and Hungarian Dance (Abstract) 179
RICHARD STEINITZ  
A született melodikus 180
The Innate Melodist (Abstract) 205
JÓZSEF BRAUER- BENKE  
A hangszerikonográfiai adatok organológiai elemzése 206
Organological Analysis of Musical Instruments’ Iconography Data (Abstract) 226

Short Contribution

 
PÉTER LAKI  
„Nekem középpont, neked periféria”
Gondolatok Kodály nemzetközi recepciójáról
228
’One Person’s Center, Another’s Periphery’
Some Thoughts on the International Reception of Zoltán Kodály’s Music
(Abstract)
234

Review

 
SZABÓ FERENC JÁNOS  
Varró Margit életműve
Ruth Iris Frey- Samlowski: Leben und Werk Margit Varrós.
Lebendiger Musikunterricht im internationalen Netzwerk
235

 

 

The whole issue (pdf)

 

 

 

ABSTRACTS

 

 

KATALIN KOMLÓS

Two Tonality- Defining Harmonic Portals in Western Art Music

 

The essay offers a survey of examples for two distinct models of harmonic progressions, which can be found in the different periods, styles, and genres of European music. Both comprise the three basic harmonic functions (Tonic – Dominant – Subdominant) of tonal music in a condensed and compact form, and, standing at the beginning of works or movements, define the tonality of the music in an unambiguous manner. Included in 18th- century theoretical sources as fundamental patterns, these harmonic models – in a wonderful variety of raiment and character – represent a real topos in the successive stylistic periods of music history.

 

Katalin Komlós, musicologist and fortepiano recitalist, received her diploma at the Musicology Department of the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. She has been on the faculty of the same insitution since 1973; at present, she is Professor Emerita. Katalin Komlós received her PhD degree in musicology from Cornell University in 1986 (‘The Viennese Keyboard Trio in the 1780s’). As a result of further scholarly achievements, she became Doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1998. Prof. Komlós has written extensively on the history of eighteenth- century keyboard instruments and styles. Her book Fortepianos and Their Music was published by Oxford University Press in 1995. Recently, her name has appeared among the contributors to The Cambridge Companion to Mozart (2003), The Cambridge Companion to Haydn (2005), Mozart’s Chamber Music with Keyboard (Cambridge, 2012), and Engaging Haydn: Culture, Context, and Criticism (Cambridge, 2012). In addition to research and teaching, Prof. Komlós has pursued a fortepianist concert career as well.

 

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YUSUKE NAKAHARA

A Triumph of Musical Order?
Multiple Sources of Inspiration in Forty- Four Duos, No. 37

 

It has been a hot topic in Bartók literature whether he followed some particular order, or relied on creative intuition when he composed. His own statements appear to be ambiguous, that is, he occasionally stressed that he consciously worked out his musical language, but on other occasions he emphasised the role of intuition. A contrapuntal short piece from the Forty- Four Duos, namely No. 37 ‘Prelude and Canon’, can be considered an appropriate material in order to examine how these different viewpoints are applied in an analysis (and to evaluate how appropriate the application of these viewpoints is).
From a technical point of view, the Canon part of this piece deserves special attention, as it contains three different types of canon one after another. While the dux always remains in E, each comes is on different degrees (G, A, then B) and different temporal distances (one, two, and three crotchets). This can be regarded as a kind of compositional virtuosity; especially because it is not easy to write such canons on an original theme, much less on an original folk tune. Thus, this piece might be considered an example of how Bartók rationally and consciously worked out his compositions.
Such a view can be refined, or possibly superseded by the examination of the original folk tune. The genre of the original folk tune, ‘párosító’ [matchmaking song], as well as the way of its actual performance on the original recording gives us an insight into how an apparently systematic application of the compositional technique is nevertheless related to what we would call a secret programme.
Thus, it was probably not only a particular folk song but also the people’s life surrounding the folk song which fascinated the composer, and he tried to vividly encode a typical village scene into a piece of art music.

 

Yusuke Nakahara was born in Japan. He studied Musicology at the Budapest Liszt Academy (2007–2012), and continued with his doctoral studies there on a Hungarian State Scholarship (2012–2015). The topic of his dissertion in preparation is the compositional process of Bartók’s Mikrokosmos. Since September 2015 he has worked as an assistant at the Budapest Bartók Archives, and is involved in editing the Bartók Complete Edition. He is the editor of the volume Mikrokosmos, expected to be published in 2020.

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ISTVÁN PÁVAI

Zoltán Kodály and Hungarian Dance

 

In addition to folk music, Zoltán Kodály was also interested in folk dance. This is evidenced not only by his writings dedicated to the subject – some relevant ideas are to be found in his publications mainly focused on other topics. In this article, the author has collected both Kodály’s writings explicitly related to folk dance as well as these hidden ideas. They are presented partly chronologically, partly in thematic groups. The topics include: Kodály’s dance experiences, his practical dance knowledge, his work of exploring data of historical dance music, his role played in the emergence of Hungarian ethnochoreology as a scholarly discipline, his critical view of the use of folk dance on stage, etc. In contrast to the earlier literature, this article no longer considers the Hungarian shepherds’ horn signals as the inspirational sources for Bécsi harangjáték [Viennese Clock], a movement which imitates a musical clock in Kodály’s Singspiel Háry János. The movement entitled Branle de village, part of 17th- century Austrian composer Johann Heinrich Schmelzer’s Partita ex Vienna, contains some bars that bear a close resemblance to the repeated main motif of Kodály’s Bécsi harangjáték. It is safer to assume that the Branle de village was Kodály’s source of inspiration, given that there is evidence that he studied the collection that included works by Schmelzer. He found there a Styrian version of a Székely dance tune, and he also referred to this volume.

 

István Pávai, ethnomusicologist, is a senior research fellow of the Institute for Musicology of the Research Centre for the Humanities of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, a habilitated university professor at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest and the head of the DLA ethnomusicology programme at the Doctoral School of the same institution. His field of interest includes research into folk dance music and its inter- ethnic relationships, folk music dialects, computer- aided ethnomusicological research, and the digital archiving and cataloguing of folklore documents. A few of his publications, accessible in international languages are: The Folk Music of Sóvidék (Budapest: Hungarian Heritage House–Institute for Musicology, RCH, HAS, 2016); The Folk Music of Magyarózd as Reflected in the Collections of István Horváth (Budapest: Hungarian Heritage House–Institute for Musicology, RCH, HAS, 2015); The Ethnomusicological Collection of János Jagamas at the Folklore Archive of the Romanian Academy (Cluj: Arhiva de Folclor a Academiei Române–Budapest: Institute for Musicology, RCH, HAS, 2014, with Erzsébet Zakariás); Music, Dance, Tradition: Dennis Galloway’s Romanian Photographs, 1926–1932 (Cluj: The Transylvanian Museum of Ethnography–Budapest: Hungarian Heritage House, 2010, with Tekla Tötszegi); Bartók and Arab Folk Music (Budapest: European Folklore Institute–Institute for Musicology, RCH, HAS, 2006, with János Kárpáti and László Vikárius); ’État de la recherche sur la musique et la danse populaire. Hongrie. Aux source de l’ethnographie’ (Ethnologie française, 2006/2, 261–272., with László Felföldi); The Folk Music of the Moldavian Hungarians (Hungarian Heritage, Budapest: European Folklore Institute, 2002/1–2., 42–48.); ’Interethnische Beziehungen in der volkstümlichen Tanzmusik Siebenbürgens’. In: Regionale Volkskulturen im überregionalen Vergleich: Ungarn–Österreich. (Interne Broschüre des Institutes für Musikethnologie an der Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst). Graz, 1998, 23–34.

 

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RICHARD STEINITZ

The Innate Melodist

 

This article argues that, alongside his modernist credentials, György Ligeti was more than any of his avant- garde colleagues an instinctive melodist. I suggest that this underrated aspect of Ligeti’s art was temporally, but only partially, submerged by the innovative techniques of the 1960s, and in Ligeti’s later music became increasingly significant, contributing greatly to the stature, breadth and accessibility of his work overall.

 

Richard Steinitz is a composer, musicologist, and Emeritus Professor at the University of Huddersfield. After graduating from King’s College, Cambridge, he studied composition with Goffredo Petrassi in Rome. He founded the Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival in 1978 and he was for twenty- three years its Artistic Director, for which he was awarded an OBE in the Queen’s Birthday Honours of 1996. His illustrated history of the Festival, Explosions in November, was published by the University of Huddersfield Press. A Hungarian translation of his award- winning book on György Ligeti (György Ligeti: Music of the Imagination, 2003) has recently been published in Hungarian by Editio Musica Budapest.

 

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JÓZSEF BRAUER- BENKE

Organological Analysis of Musical Instruments’ Iconography Data

 

All things considered, the erroneous iconographical identifications of instruments in the field of art history may be attributed to the tendency, also observable in other disciplines, to adopt literal translations of the German names of instruments under the influence of German technical terminology. An example of this type of error is the borrowing of the term Jochlaute (i. e. yoke lute) in the sense of lyra, and the borrowing of the term Flöte, a polysemous term meaning flute as well as cross flute. The transmission of such misidentified technical terms has led to preiconographical and iconological statements containing serious organological errors. Contrastingly, musicians committed to preserve the cultural heritage often display a highly tendentious, ideologically based approach leading to preconceptions in attempts to identify the iconography of various instruments and to a related tendency to seek links to the high cultures of Antiquity.

 

József Brauer- Benke (Budapest, 1970) studied ethnography, folklore, cultural anthropology, and African studies at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest from 1995–2000, and from 2001–2004 he completed the Doctoral Programme in European Ethnology at the same institution. His doctoral dissertation examined the history of Hungarian folk musical instruments. He has been a lecturer in the African Studies Programme at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest from 2003–2008, and has lectured at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music since 2008. He also worked in the Laczkó Dezsô Museum in Veszprém from 2006–2007 as resident ethnographer and museologist. He currently holds an appointment as organologist and museologist at the Institute for Musicology in the Research Centre for the Humanities at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His publications focus on folk musical instruments and the history of folk society. His book about African folk musical instruments appeared in 2007, followed in 2014 by a typology and historical overview of the musical instruments of the Carpathian basin that was published in English translation in 2018. He is currently involved in comparative research into the history of European and African folk musical instruments.

 

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PÉTER LAKI

 

’One Person’s Center, Another’s Periphery’
Some Thoughts on the International Reception of Zoltán Kodály’s Music

 

While Kodály’s image in Hungary is, to this day, defined primarily by his personal image as handed down through the generations, his international reception has been hampered by a tendency to regard him as little more than a representative of musical nationalism. We have to work to bring these two perspectives closer to one another, by communicating to the world who Kodály really was, and by emphasizing those musical techniques and aesthetic positions in his oeuvre that transcend mere folklorism. (The full English text of the conference lecture is available upon request.)

 

Peter Laki, a native of Budapest Hungary, graduated from the Franz Liszt Academy (now University) of Music in 1979 and received his Ph. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1989. He served as Program Annotator of the Cleveland Orchestra from 1990 to 2005 and taught courses at Case Western Reserve University, Kent State University, John Carroll University and Oberlin College between 1990 and 2007. In 2007, he joined the faculty of Bard College in upstate New York as Visiting Associate Professor of Music. Dr. Laki is the author of numerous musicological articles and the editor of Bartók and His World, a collection of essays and documents published by Princeton University Press in 1995. He writes program notes for many orchestras and performing arts organizations around the country and has lectured at many international conferences. In September 2017, he was one of three keynote speakers at an international Bartók symposium held in Budapest.

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