Magyar Zene Music Quarterly

 

 

 

 

Magyar Zene

Hungarian Language Music Quarterly

 

Vol. 56 , No. 1 - February 2018

 

 

Contents

 

Essay

 
RICHARD TARUSKIN  
Liszt problémái, Bartók problémái, saját problémáim 5
Liszt’s Problems, Bartók’s Problems, my Problems (Abstract) 22

Articles

 
ANDREA KOVÁCS  
A középkori magyar liturgia Géza kori elemei? 25
Elements of the Age of Geza in the Medieval Hungarian Liturgy? (Abstract) 46
GYÖRGY MERCZEL  
A graduále kapcsolata más műfajokkal
Archaikus szólózsoltározási technika nyomai a gregorián repertoárban
47
The Connections of the Graduale with Other Genres
Traces of an Archaic Soloistic Psalm-Recitation Technique in the Gregorian Repertory (Abstract)
72
TIM CARTER  
Túl a drámán: Monteverdi, Marino és a hatodik madrigálkötet (1614)
2. rész
73
Beyond Drama: Monteverdi, Marino, and the Sixth Book of Madrigals (1614) – Part two (Abstract) 88
ANNA DALOS  
Modernitás- kísérletek 1956 után. Egy elveszett nemzedék? 89
Experiments with Modernity after 1956. A Lost Generation? (Abstract) 101

Work in Progress

 
RUDOLF GUSZTIN  
Kultúrpolitika és diktatúra
A jazz megítélése a kádári konszolidáció idején (1956–1963)
102
Cultural Policy and Dictatorship
The Assessment of Jazz in the Kádár Period of Consolidation (1956–1963)
(Abstract)
116

 

 

The whole issue (pdf)

 

 

 

ABSTRACTS

 

 

RICHARD TARUSKIN

Liszt’s Problems, Bartók’s Problems, my Problems

 

In his inaugural address to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Béla Bartók proposed dividing the works of Liszt into two unequally valued portions: the valuable works that showed Liszt as an artistic innovator, and the undesirable ones that adopted a false ‘Hungarian’ style that pleased unsophisticated listeners but corrupted their taste. In sum, he asserted a radical pseudo- aesthetic dichotomy in the interests of a political agenda. Only a dozen years later, Bartók’s own legacy was dichotomized in a very similar way by musicians and politicians, on both sides of the Cold War divide, who were acting according to a political agenda that no one even tried to disguise as aesthetic. The crypto- political pseudo- aesthetics of the twentieth century, whether practiced in the name of pure national traditions, in the name of social justice, or in the name of aesthetic autonomy, has corrupted both the production and the reception of art music and has played a part in its devaluation, all too evident in twenty- first- century society. The many errors of evaluation enumerated in this essay have contributed to that melancholy history.

 

Richard Taruskin is professor emeritus at the University of California at Berkeley, where he taught from 1987 to 2014, having previously served on the faculty of Columbia University, where he earned his advanced degrees. He is the author of The Oxford History of Western Music (2005), several books on Russian music (including monographs on Stravinsky and Musorgsky), and Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance (1995). He has also worked as a music journalist, publishing more than sixty articles in the New York Times between 1990 and 2016. A member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2006, he was elected to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences ten years later. In 2017 he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in arts and philosophy.

 

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ANDREA KOVÁCS

Elements of the Age of Geza in the Medieval Hungarian Liturgy?

 

The study is an attempt to group the medieval Hungarian liturgical sources according to traditions based on two series of alleluias – Easter week, Eastertide – of the Temporale. Following a presentation of the typical solutions, origins and foreign parallels of the narrower traditions – Esztergom, Zagreb, Upper Hungary – there is a study of a source group whose series are separated from the known Hungarian ones. These include some characteristic items unknown elsewhere that are separated by other Hungarian traditions, and link sources to each other and those that result in an internal division of the source group. Based on the data of the sources it is likely that these special alleluias or series characterized only the institutions of the Kalocsa archbishopric. Foreign parallels of the two series can only be traced from Benedictine monasteries of South Germany – Sankt Gallen, Regensburg. Where the two series came from to Hungary can be answered by the Offices for Gallus and St. Gregory the Great. The possible date of their receipt may be determined by knowing the history of Christian proselytization in South Hungary that was beginning at the time of Grand Prince Geza.

 

Andrea Kovács graduated in the pedagogy of music theory and choir conducting (1993) and in church music (1998) at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. She earned her doctoral degree (DLA) at the same university in 2002. Between 2003 and 2006 she worked as a research fellow at the Church Music Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Liszt Academy of Music, then from 2007 at the Early Music Department of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Since 2009 she has been a research fellow, since 2015 a senior research fellow and head of the Church Music Research Group of the University. Her publications comprise several volumes and articles on medieval plainchant. Her main research fields include musical sources of the medieval Divine Office and Mass, the scholarly analysis and reconstruction of the Gregorian Office traditions of Hungary, comprehensive critical editions of Gregorian genres and transcribed editions of sources.

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GYÖRGY MERCZEL

The Connections of the Graduale with Other Genres
Traces of an Archaic Soloistic Psalm-Recitation Technique in the Gregorian Repertory

 

Specialists disagree as to the origins of the graduale. Some suggest that it developed directly from the tractus. Today it seems difficult to reconstruct the genesis of these two genres, especially with respect to the early phase (without notation), but it seems more likely that the two went their own ways from the very start. Despite their differences, however, they are connected by an important feature that results from their soloistic character. The way they treat the melodies evokes an improvisatory practice of soloistic psalm- singing, which is ornate but at the same time built on simple patterns, and proves characteristic of the early phase of liturgical chant. The basic melodic repertory of Gregorian chant, which resulted from the musical unification that formed an integral part of the Carolingian liturgical reform, preserved several features of the archaic practice of soloistic psalmsinging, and this is evident not only in these two genres but also in others that use ornate soloistic psalmody (e. g. alleluia, offertory). The common characteristics of the technique perpetuated this way are ancient melodic thinking predating the system of tones, which allows for unconstrained moves in between the different sets of notes of the as yet unconsolidated tones; improvisatory melodic style including virtuosic ornamentations; the use of simple building blocks (mostly consisting of three notes) in the melodic construction. Even though their different liturgical functions prompted these genres to evolve in different ways, careful comparative analysis can observe the above traits hinting at soloistic psalmsinging. These stereotypical melodic patterns survived the musical simplification of the Carolingian era, and were written down after the appearance of notation,
thus testifying for the connection not only between the graduale types thought to originate in different ages, but also between the genres containing the above- mentioned soloistic psalmody.

 

György Merczel (b.1963) completed his studies at the Budapest Liszt Academy, in the faculties of pedagogy
of music theory and choral conducting (1988) and church music (1995). In 2001 he gained his doctorate (DLA) in church music. He is a church choral director and an associate professor at the Liszt Academy. Since 1996 he has taught gregorian chant, antiphons, gregorian genres and gregorian paleography in the Church Music Department. In addition he contributes to the practical teaching of church music (liturgical organ playing, didactics, directing gregorian chant singing). He is in charge of all matters to do with specialist choral conducting. His musical activities include the founding and directing of the Capella Theresiana choir in 2005 and the Schola Academica in 2013. He has given lectures at numerous conferences and is the author of several scholarly articles, mainly to do with gregorian chant.

 

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TIM CARTER

Beyond Drama: Monteverdi, Marino, and the Sixth Book of Madrigals (1614) – Part two

 

Monteverdi’s Il sesto libro de madrigali a cinque voci (1614) is often viewed as an outlier in his secular output. His Fourth and Fifth Books (1603, 1605) were firmly embroiled in the controversy with Artusi over the seconda pratica, while his Seventh (1619) sees him shifting style in favor of the new trends that were starting to dominate music in early seventeenth- century Italy: the Sixth Book falls between the cracks. But it also suffers – in modern eyes, at least – for the fact that it reflects the composer’s first encounters with the poetry of Giambattista Marino, marking what many see as the start of a fundamental reorientation, if not downward spiral, in his secular vocal music. The problems are exposed by one of the Marino settings in the Sixth Book, ‘Batto, qui pianse Ergasto: ecco la riva’, in which an unnamed speaker tells Batto how Ergasto has been abandoned by Clori. The text has often been misunderstood. Uncovering the sources for the story – and the literary identities of Batto, Ergasto, and Clori – forces a new reading of the poetry and more particularly of Monteverdi’s music. It also answers some profound questions in terms of how best to address issues of narration and representation, and of diegesis and mimesis, in this complex repertory.

 

Tim Carter is the author of books on opera and musical theater ranging from Claudio Monteverdi in the early seventeenth century through Mozart in the later eighteenth to American musicals of the 1930s and ’40s, including, most recently, Understanding Italian Opera (Oxford University Press, 2015), and Rodgers and Hammerstein’s ‘Carousel’ (OUP, 2017). He also edited the musical play Johnny Johnson (1936) by Kurt Weill and North Carolina playwright, Paul Green, for The Kurt Weill Edition (2012). Prior to moving to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2001, he taught in the United Kingdom at the Universities of Leicester and Lancaster, and at Royal Holloway, University of London. He has also held fellowships at the Harvard Center for Italian Renaissance Studies in Florence, the Newberry Library in Chicago, and the National Humanities Center. In 2013 he won a unique double award from the American Musicological Society recognizing his research on Monteverdi and on Weill. In 2017, he was named an honorary member of both the Society for Seventeenth- Century Music and the United Kingdom’s Royal Musical Association.

 

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ANNA DALOS

Experiments with Modernity after 1956. A Lost Generation?

 

The generation of Hungarian composers born in the 1910s faced a major challenge after 1956. Their entire creative career, which was shaped by the Kodályian and Bartókian models of folkloristic national classicism, was questioned at that time. At the age of 40, they had to search for new compositional thinking and new stylistic models adapting themselves to the newly found orientation towards Western music of the younger generation. In my paper, I examine their career, analysing the works of Rudolf Maros (1917–1982), András Mihály (1917–1993), Tibor Sárai (1919–1995), Rezsô Sugár (1919–1988), Endre Székely (1912–1989), Béla Tardos (1910–1966), and aiming at showing the stages they must have gone through towards the mastery and application of Western- European modernity.

 

Anna Dalos studied musicology at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest (1993–1998), and attended the same institution’s Doctoral Programme in Musicology (1998–2002). She spent a year on a German exchange scholarship (DAAD) at the Humboldt University, Berlin (1999–2000). As a winner of the ‘Lendület’ grant of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, she is head of the Archives and Research Group for 20th–21st Century Hungarian Music at the Institute for Musicology RCH HAS. Her research is focused on 20th century music, and the history of composition and musicology in Hungary. Her book on Zoltán Kodály’s poetics was published in 2007, and a collection of her essays on Kodály in 2013.

 

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RUDOLF GUSZTIN

 

Cultural Policy and Dictatorship

The Assessment of Jazz in the Kádár Period of Consolidation (1956–1963)

 

I

The American genre jazz was present throughout the 20th century not only in Western countries, but in the communist Eastern region as well, challenging its leaders to make a statement about this imperialistic musical product. Examining the beginning of the Kádár- regime, the so called consolidation period (1956–1963) provides a chance to see what kind of ideological principles were laid down concerning popular music, and to see how they applied it in practice. While other studies talk about this topic mainly based on archival sources, this paper examines the story of the assessment of jazz through the press. This open forum shows the evolution of the acceptance of jazz, as from being a prohibited genre it became first tolerated, then later supported.

 

Rudolf Gusztin graduated in 2016 with an MA from the Musicology Department of the Liszt Academy of Music (Budapest), and in 2017 he also gained an MA degree in Music Education as a Teacher of Musicology. His research areas include 19th century and 20th century Hungarian music history and music theory. Since May 2016, he has been employed first as an academic administrator, later as a research assistant at the Department for Hungarian Music History (Institute of Musicology, RCH, HAS). He participates in the preparation and editing of the Department’s series of critical editions and scholarly publications (Ferenc Erkel’s Operas, Műhelytanulmányok a 18. Század Zenetörténetéhez [Studies for 18th Century Music History]) as well as in the Department’s work of data processing and cataloguing of basic research for the 18th and 19th centuries. His research area has been enlarged with his planned PhD dissertation on the 19th century choral movement in Hungary.

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