Magyar Zene Music Quarterly

 

 

 

 

Magyar Zene

Hungarian Language Music Quarterly

 

Vol. 50 , No. 2 - May 2012

 

 

Contents

 

Magyar Zene 50

 

BENCE SZABOLCSI  
A zenei köznyelv problémái 125
Problems of Colloquial Language in Music (Abstract) 142

Articles

 

BALÁZS MIKUSI  
„Was für Redner sind wir nicht”
Haydn és a retorika
143
„Was für Redner sind wir nicht”
Haydn and Rhetoric (Abstract)
157
DOROTHEA REDEPENNING  
Liszt és a képzőművészet
Szisztematikus töprengések
158
Liszt and Visual Art
Some Systematic Reflections (Abstract)
168
PÉTER BOZÓ  
„Die Tiroler sind lustig” –
Offenbach és a tyrolienne
169
„Die Tiroler sind lustig” –
Offenbach and Tyrolienne (Abstract)
187
VIOLA BIRÓ  
Adalékok Bartók 2. hegedűrapszódiájának népzenei forrásaihoz 188
Reconsidering the Folk Music Sources of Bartók’s
Second Rhapsody for Violin and Piano (Abstract)
209

Short Contribution

 

BALÁZS SZABÓ  
„És Szigeti másképp játszik…”
Bartók 2. hegedű- zongoraszonátájának 1940- es lemezfelvételéről
210
„And Szigeti Plays it Differently…’’
The 1940 Recording of Bartók’s 2nd Violin Sonata (Abstract)
216

Work in Progress

 

FERENC JÁNOS SZABÓ  
Liszt ujjlenyomata
Liszt Ferenc ujjrendjei az 1830- as években
– 1. rész
217
Liszt’s Fingerprints
Ferenc Liszt’s Fingerings in the 1830s – Part 1 
(Abstract)
229

Reviews

 

ANNA DALOS  
A bikapárti zenekritikus
Kroó György írásai az Élet és Irodalomban (1964–1996)

[György Kroó’s Writings in Élet és Irodalom (1964–1996)]

230
ISTVÁN ALMÁSI  
A Magyar Népzene Tára XI. és XII. kötete

[Corpus Musicae Popularis Hungaricae Vol. 11 and 12 ]

236
   
 

The whole issue (pdf)

 

 

 



 

ABSTRACTS

 

 

BENCE SZABOLCSI

Problems of Colloquial Language in Music

 

This year Magyar Zene has reached its fiftieth year of publication. We are quietly celebrating our jubilee year by re- publishing some of the outstanding articles that have appeared in the journal over these fifty years (we have selected only from music historians whose output is now over, and of course with no attempt at completion). In this way we wish to pay our respects to the past fifty years of Hungarian musicology and its most important representatives.
The first article reproduced here is by Bence Szabolcsi (1899–1973) and entitled A zenei köznyelv problémái [Problems of Colloquial Language in Music]. It was given as a lecture in May 1966 at a session of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Department of Linguistic and Literary Studies chaired by Zoltán Kodály, and first published in the November 1966 issue of Magyar Zene.

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BALÁZS MIKUSI

„Was für Redner sind wir nicht”
Haydn and Rhetoric 

 

The past two decades have seen vivid interest in the relationship between Joseph Haydn’s compositions and classical rhetoric. This article examines a work that stands alone in the composer’s oeuvre in referring to rhetoric in its very title: Die Beredsamkeit (Hob. XXVc:4), a partsong set around 1796 to a text by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. In analyzing the piece I identify four different levels of illustrating eloquence: (1) imitating the intonation of elevated speech, (2) evoking the socalled „learned style” through the introduction of various contrapuntal procedures, (3) using a few elementary figures of musical rhetoric (such as the Halbzirkel or the tirata) and (4) constructing the whole of the work as a well- delivered oration consisting of exordium, narratio, corroboratio, confutatio and peroratio. In conclusion I suggest that, while Die Beredsamkeit seems to confirm that the composer had some knowledge of the musical applications of rhetoric, in view of the irony of Lessing’s text it seems difficult to tell whether Haydn would have viewed this knowledge as a curious relic of the past, or would have found it relevant for his own creative work in general.
This article is adapted and translated from the author’s „’Learned Style’ in Two Lessing Settings by Haydn,” Eighteenth- Century Music 1/1 (March 2004), 29–46.

 

Balázs Mikusi holds a PhD from Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), and has been Head of Music at the National Széchényi Library, Budapest, since 2009. Previously he studied musicology at the Liszt Academy of Music, and held Fulbright and DAAD fellowships, among others. His scholarly interests are wideranging, but vocal music from the 18th and 19th centuries plays a special role: he has published several articles about the music of Joseph Haydn (Eighteenth- Century Music, Journal of Musicological Research, Ad Parnassum, Studia Musicologica) and Mozart (The Musical Times, Mozart- Jahrbuch), a study of Mendelssohn’s „Scottish” tonality (Nineteenth- Century Music), as well as an essay on Schumann’s „exotic” works (The Musical Times). His monograph tentatively entitled The Secular Partsong in Germany 1780–1815 is forthcoming in the Eastman Studies in Music series of the University of Rochester Press. Since September 2011 his Haydn research has been supported by a János Bolyai Research Fellowship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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DOROTHEA REDEPENNING

Liszt and Visual Art
Some Systematic Reflections

 

The question how visual art absorbs music has been the subject of much investigation. The reverse question, namely how music absorbs visual art, has until now received little attention (in this connection in 2011 a Kongressbericht was published edited by Lukas Christensen and Monika Fink which for the first time gave serious attention to this topic). Franz Liszt was perhaps the first to be inspired by visual art in his compositions. The starting point was his encounter with the art of Italy (Sposalizio and Il penseroso in book II of Années de pèlerinage), after which there followed symphonic poems (Hunnenschlacht based on Kaulbach and Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe probably based on Zichy); his Totentanz for piano and orchestra was inspired by Orcagna and Holbein. In Liszt it is a matter of the poetic content of music and the unification of the arts, where in principle music can be connected not just to literature, but to all branches of the arts. When it is joined to literature, then it reflects the forms and structures of literature. The question is, therefore, whether all this is valid for visual art as well? Does Liszt just compose a ’’story”, or does he also take over the structures of art? And what influence did these works have on later composers?

 

Dorothea Redepenning (b. 1954), studied music, musicology, german and roman literature in Hamburg, PhD 1984, lecturer of slavonic musical cultures at the university of Hamburg, habilitation 1993, since 1997 professor of musicology at the university of Heidelberg; 1999–2002 co- editor of the journal Die Musikforschung, adviser for russian music at the new edition of Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (MGG), 2000–2008 dean of studies of the faculty of philosophy at the university of Heidelberg, member in the cluster of excellence “Asia and Europe in a Global Context: Shifting Asymmetries in Cultural Flows” (since 2008). Major scientific topics: eastern european music, in particular russian, soviet and postsoviet music, history of symphony and opera in 19th and 20th century music, questions of reception (middle ages in the 19th and 20th centuries, J. S. Bach in the 19th and 20th centuries), film music, intercultural processes.

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PÉTER BOZÓ

„Die Tiroler sind lustig” –
Offenbach and Tyrolienne

 

Writing about the nature of musical analysis in the latest edition of the New Grove Dictionary, Ian D. Bent and Anthony Pople have pointed out that musical analysis is not an objective activity, but „the analyst works with the preconceptions of his culture, age and personality”. At the same time, they also emphasize that „the preoccupation which the 19th century had with the nature of ’genius’ led to the phrasing of the initial question not as ’How does it work?’ but as ’What makes this great?’, and this remained the initial question for some analytical traditions in the 20th century”.
In ideal cases, our analytical methods reckon with the nature of the analyzed piece of music, what is more, they highly depend on it. But what do we do if the composition in question is obviously not a masterpiece in the classical sense of the word, but belongs to the category of entertaining musical theatre, questioning therefore the initial question ’What makes this great’? Should we exclude such pieces from the domain of music history and musical analysis?

In considering these questions, in my study I present briefly some characteristic approaches of Offenbach analysis. Then I describe a musical type, the tyrolienne, which is, in my opinion, very typical of the composer, and which has received, however, surprisingly little scholarly attention. I also touch on a 19th- century international vogue of popular music, which may have contributed to the development of this characteristic Offenbachian type, and on a notational problem, which is worth our attention concerning the performance practice of musical numbers of this kind.

 

Péter Bozó (1980 Budapest), musicologist. From 1998 to 2003 he studied musicology at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. He was a PhD student at the same university from 2003 to 2006. He received his PhD with his study A Buch der Liedertől a Gesammelte Liederig: Liszt összegyűjtött dalainak első négy füzete és előfutárai (From Buch der Lieder to Gesammelte Lieder: The First Four Volumes of Liszt’s Collected Songs and Their Predecessors) in 2010. Between 1999 and 2007 he worked as a contributor at the Budapest Liszt Memorial Museum and Research Center. From 2005 to 2009 he was assistant lecturer at the Theatre Department of Kaposvár University. He was awarded the Kodály Scholarship of the Hungarian Ministry of Culture and Education in 2005, 2006 and 2007. Since 2006 he has been an assistant research fellow, since October 2010 research fellow at the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Between 2006 and 2009 he was the assistant editor of the international journal Studia Musicologica. At present he is studying the history of operetta in Hungary between 1860 and 1958; his postdoctoral researches are funded by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund. He lectured at the First Stuttgart Liszt Conference, at the London International Musicological Workshop of the ESF “Music, Culture and Politics in Early Nineteenth- Century Europe, 1815–1848” and at the Vienna international conference “Die Operette und das Tragische”. In 2011 he received the Prize of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for Young Scholars.

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VIOLA BIRÓ

Reconsidering the Folk Music Sources of Bartók’s Second Rhapsody for Violin and Piano

 

When he composed a pair of virtuoso concert pieces for his violinist partners Joseph Szigeti and Zoltán Székely in 1928, Bartók reformulated the genre of the rhapsody, making it an arrangement of authentic folk music of high artistic demand. For both of his violin rhapsodies the composer chose unconventional formal structures: their second movements show continuous chain- like forms, in which folk dances follow each other without any recapitulation. In the case of the 1st rhapsody this recalls a kind of traditional order of Sunday dancing events in villages. In the fast (“Friss”) movement of the 2nd rhapsody Bartók turned to the most virtuoso examples of peasant dances he ever collected, the type he called „melodies with motif- structure”. By examining the various strategies of choosing and arranging the folkdance melodies, Vera Lampert has pointed out that the close motivic relationship of some of the melodies served the cohesion of this unusual formal structure of the 2nd rhapsody. Beyond compositional purposes, the selection and ordering of the source melodies seems to have been influenced also by the composer’s ethnomusicological findings. In this article I examine the folk melodies of the “Friss” movement in the light of Bartók’s musicological writings. According to the composer’s scientific observations, all of the melody types used in this movement seems to be typologically related to one another. Consequently, their placement and arrangement show a kind of evolutionary progression, from the free improvisatory structures to melodies of periodic structure. The proposed formal- dramaturgic conception reminds us of the idea behind the formal plan of the 2nd sonata for violin and piano (1922) as discussed in László Somfai’s analysis.

 

Viola Biró (1985) studied musicology at the Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music in Cluj- Napoca (Kolozsvár), Romania (2004–2008), and at the Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music in Budapest (2008–2010). Since 2010 she has attended doctoral studies in musicology at the same institution. She is writing her dissertation on Béla Bartók’s research into Romanian folk music and its influence on his compositions.

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BALÁZS SZABÓ

„And Szigeti Plays it Differently…’’
The 1940 Recording of Bartók’s 2nd Violin Sonata

 

The 1940 Recording of Bartók’s 2nd Violin Sonata The Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2 is one of Bartók’s important works which we know how the composer performed. It was recorded by Bartók and József Szigeti in the Coolidge auditorium of the Washington Library of Congress on April 13th 1940, and to this day it is often referred to as the benchmark performance from the interpretative standpoint. It particularly deserves our attention in that part of Szigeti’s reading of the work was strongly criticised by another important violinist who knew Bartók, Zoltán Székely – who in his remarks referred to the composer. My study examines the links between the score of the work, its interpretation and the recording, in pursuit of what may be the authentic performance we can deduce from the memoirs of Zoltán Székely.

 

Balázs Szabó (*1970, Székesfehérvár, Hungary). He studied violin with Csaba Pothof in Győr between 1989–1993. Since 1993 he has been a music teacher at the László Hermann Music School and Music Secondary School in Székesfehérvár. Between 1995–2003 he studied musicology at the Ferenc Liszt University of Music in Budapest. Since 2002 he has been teaching at the Széchenyi University in Győr.

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FERENC JÁNOS SZABÓ

Liszt’s Fingerprints
Ferenc Liszt’s Fingerings in the 1830s – Part 1

 

In the first half of the nineteenth century virtuoso piano playing developed to a greater extent than ever before. The traces of these changes are preserved in the piano treatises of that time and in a new genre, the highly artistic piano study. After studying with Carl Czerny, the young Ferenc Liszt became – because of his extraordinary technical abilities – one of the most important innovators. The peak of that process was his Grandes Etudes (1838). The new piano technique required new ways of playing; these ways are most easily seen in the fingering. There are overall studies about the fingering of Liszt, but these deal with the whole of his output and concentrate on his new methods (Milstein, 1956 and Walker, 1983). In my study I present the twenty year old Liszt, who adapted his piano technique to suit his new artistic message, primarily through the Grandes Etudes. I investigate not only the improvements but also the changes that took place in features found in the fingering of the preceding period. I use as a comparison the chapters on fingering in the two most important piano treatises of the period (Hummel, 1828 and Czerny, 1839).

 

Ferenc János Szabó was born in Hungary in 1985. He studied piano, choir conducting and composition at colleges in Pécs and Budapest. In 2008 he graduated with honours in piano from the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. He has given recitals in several countries of Europe and in China (piano solo and chamber music) and he especially enjoys working with singers. He has studied at the Doctoral School of the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest as a pianist (DLA) and a musicologist (PhD). He worked in the first half of 2011 at the Ferenc Liszt Memorial Museum and Research Centre. Since September 2011 he has worked as a research assistant at the Institute for Musicology (Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences). His research area is the early Hungarian recording history and the analysis of interpretation. He completed his DLA studies Summa cum laude in 2012; his DLA thesis was about Karel Burian’s Hungarian activity. He is currently working on his PhD thesis on the singing style of the singers of the Royal Hungarian Opera House between 1899 and 1926. He has given talks at several Hungarian and international musicological conferences.

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