Magyar Zene Music Quarterly





Magyar Zene

Hungarian Language Music Quarterly


Vol. 48 , No. 1 - February 2010






A szerkesztő előszava 5
Editor’s Note 6



Az összehasonlító népzenetudomány tündöklése és lehanyatlása 7
The Rise and Fall of Comparative Ethnomusicology (Abstract) 19
Hemiola- jelenség a Földközi- tenger térségében 20
Hemiola Phenomenon in the Mediterranean Area (Abstract) 30
Egzotikum és depresszió – értelmezések és félreértelmezések a magyaros stílus kapcsán 33
Exoticism and Depression – Interpretations and Misinterpretations in Connection with the Style Hongrois (Abstract) 47
Bartók egy zenei poénjáról
Az 5. kvartett Allegretto con indifferenza epizódjának értelmezéséhez
On a Bartókian Joke
Interpreting the Allegretto con indifferenza Episode in the Fifth String Quartet (Abstract)



Révész Dorrit bibliográfiája


Bibliography of Dorrit Révész (Abstract) 64

Short Contributions


C. P. E. Bach „C- F- E- B-A- C- H” fughettája 65
„C- F- E- B-A-C- H” Fughetta by C. P. E. Bach (Abstract) 68
Filmzeneírás – szabadon: Höllering és Lajtha 69
Writing Music for Film – Freely: Hoellering and Lajtha (Abstract) 73
Furulyák a nagyszebeni múzeumban 74
Recorders in the Sibiu Museum (Abstract) 83

Work in Progress


Novellák mennyei terjengőssége: Schumann műveinek intertextuális értelmezési lehetőségei 84
The Heavenly Length of Short Novels: Interpretative Possibilities of Intertextuality in Schumann’s Works (Abstract) 103



Bepillantás egy kivételes elme rapszodikus és csapongó gondolataiba
György Ligeti: Gesammelte Schriften
[György Ligeti: Collected Writings]  
Egy kolozsvári népzenekutató válogatott írásai
Almási István: A népzene jegyében
[István Almási: Under the aegis of folk music]  



Tartalomjegyzék 2009 113
[Contents 2009]  

The whole issue  (pdf)








The Rise and Fall of Comparative Ethnomusicology


Comparative musicology, a discipline that took root at the beginning of the 20th century had a great impact on the study of folk music in the 1950s and could reinforce the links between folk music and music history research. The works of Walter Wiora played an important role in the process, but Hungarian researchers, such as Zoltán Kodály, Bence Szabolcsi, Benjamin Rajeczky, Lajos Vargyas and others have also contributed to this synthesis. The promising developments came to a halt after the 1970s. This article investigates the reasons of this „rise and fall”.

László Dobszay (1935) studied composition at the Liszt Academy of Music and history at the Budapest University. From 1956 until 1966 he was a teacher in a district music school and published a series of basic school books and papers on music education. From 1966 onwards he was a member of the Folk Music Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 1972 he became a lecturer at the Department of Musicology of the Liszt Academy of Music. In 1990 he founded and until 2000 he was the leader of the Department of Church Music. In 1970 he founded the Schola Hungarica Choir with Janka Szendrei which published a series of six records under the title Hungarian Gregorianum. From 1975 onwards he was a senior scientific researcher and also the head of the Department of Old Music History of the Institute of Musicology, Budapest. His research fields include folk music, Gregorian chant, and Hungarian music history. He was also a member and later became the chairman of the Committee of Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 2003 he acquired a DSc. In recognition of his work he was given numerous awards, among others the Erkel Award and in 2004 the Széchenyi Award. His main works include Hungarian Music History (1984); The Book of Hungarian Song (1984); The Catalogue of Hungarian Folk Song Types (with Janka Szendrei, 1988); Corpus Antiphonalium Offici Ecclesiarum Centralis Europae (with Gábor Prószéky, 1988); The Post-Kodály Era. Musing on Music Pedagogy (1991); The Handbook of Gregorian Chant (1993); Hungarian Folk Song (1995); Corpus Antiphonarum: European Heritage and Hungarian Creation (2003).

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Hemiola Phenomenon in the Mediterranean Area


In the North-African Arab and Berber folk music – as proved by Bartók’s Algerian and my Moroccan collection – the hemiola rhythm plays an important role. There are similar results in Spanish, Greek and Turkish folk music research. Although hemiola is present in the European Renaissance and Early- Baroque art music too, as typical examples can be quoted from Josquin to Monteverdi. Its acceptable explanation is that the „one and a half” ratio of the ancient Greek rhythmic theory, realized in the additive cumulation of 2 and 3 units, could be naturally rooted in both folk and composed musical praxis. The rhythmic course
„perturbed” by hemiola has been a favourite tool in the music of later eras, and in the 20th century it became starting point for György Ligeti in his polyrhythmic Etudes for Piano.


János Kárpáti (born 1932, Budapest), Hungarian musicologist, retired professor and head librarian of the Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. He studied at the same institution with Kodály, Szabolcsi and Bartha, took his PhD in 1968 and DSc in 1995. His main research fields in musicology include Bartók analysis and Japanese traditional music. He cooperated with various international projects, between 1980–1986 he was vice president of the International Association of Music Libraries, between 1998–2007 president of the Hungarian Musicological Society. He lectured at several universities in the USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, France, Italy. He was decorated by the Erkel Prize (1971), the Grand Prize of Hungarian Creative Artists (1991), the Award for Excellence of the American Liszt Society (1996) and the Széchenyi Prize (2005). Main publications: Bartók’s String Quartets (1967, 1975); Bartók’s Chamber Music (1976, USA: 1994, Japan: 1998); Music of the East (1981, 1998); Dance in front of the Heavenly Rock Cave: Music and Myth in the Japanese Ritual Tradition (1998); Bartók Analysis (2003).

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Exoticism and Depression – Interpretations and Misinterpretations in Connection with the Style Hongrois


The book The Style Hongrois in the Music of Western Europe by Jonathan Bellman was published 17 years ago. It is about the nature, origin, and use of the style hongrois in the 18th-and 19th century music of Western Europe. Bellman’s work is the only, and the first sustained study on this topic, and is well-known, often cited in the literature, first of all in the English language literature. But Hungarian musicologists have not declared their opinions yet. They have written reviews neither in English, nor in Hungarian. Partly to remedy this omission, and partly connecting to the anniversaries of Joseph Haydn, Ferenc Erkel, and Franz Liszt, it pays to confront Bellman’s arguments and data with the arguments of Hungarian scholars (ethnomusicologists and music historians), and with the facts of Hungarian history, and of different sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The research accomplishments of the last 10-15 years make it necessary to open new pages in the discourse of style hongrois.


Pál Richter was born in Budapest (1963), graduated from the Liszt University of Music as a musicologist in 1995, and obtained his PhD degree in 2004. His special field of research is the 17th century music of Hungary, and he conducted his PhD research into the same subject. Other main fields of his interest are Hungarian folk music, classical and 19th century music theory and multimedia in music education. Since 1990 he has been involved in the computerized cataloguing of the folk music collection of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and has participated in ethnographic field research, too. In 2005 he was appointed the head of the Folk Music Archives of the institute. He regularly reads papers at conferences abroad, publishes articles and studies and teaches music theory and the study of musical forms at the Liszt University of Music in Budapest, where since 2007 he has been the head of the new Folk Music Department.

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On a Bartókian Joke
Interpreting the Allegretto con indifferenza Episode in the Fifth String Quartet


An unexpected, ironic or sarcastic turn appears in several compositions by Bartók; if in multi-movement works, then it tends to appear before the final section of last movement. An especially memorable example is the Allegretto con indifferenza episode inserted in the recapitulation section in the finale of the Fifth String Quartet (1934). János Kárpáti interpreted the passage both thematically - within the last movement - and as a “key” to Bartók's tonality, polytonality and what he labelled “mistuning”. The sketches of the piece (in Peter Bartók's private collection) show how carefully the composer planned and polished the joke to achieve maximum effect. When interpreting the joke, the article raises the possibility of Schoenberg's similar ironic quote of „O du lieber Augustin” in the second, Scherzo, movement of his Second String Quartet in F-sharp minor (1908) being either a „model” or a „reference”. A reinvestigation of Bartók's acquaintance with Schoenberg's music provides so far neglected evidence that he participated at the Salzburg Chamber Music Festival in August 1922 where Schoenberg's piece was also performed. In his seminal lecture, “The Influence of Peasant Music on Modern Music” (1931), Bartók himself seems to call attention to this parallel mentioning „O du lieber Augustin” as a typical example of German song that requires the alteration of simple tonic and dominant accompanying harmonies as opposed to East-European folksong that make unconventional settings possible. The Allegretto con indifferenza episode, while “revealing” how easily polytonality can be created, might also be regarded as a musical “commentary” to his verbal criticism of a mistakenly conventional approach to peasant songs.


László Vikárius directs the Bartók Archives of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and lectures at the Liszt University of Music in Budapest. His main field of research is centred on Bartók’s life, style and, especially, compositional sources. He has published articles in the Danish Yearbook of Musicology, Hungarian Quarterly, International Journal of Musicology, Magyar Zene, Musical Quarterly, Muzsika, Studia Musicologica and Studien zur Wertungsforschung. His study Modell és inspiráció Bartók zenei gondolkodásában [Model and inspiration in Bartók’s musical thinking] was published in 1999 (Pécs: Jelenkor) and his most recent publications include the facsimile edition of Bartók’s autograph draft of Duke Bluebeard’s Castle (Budapest: Balassi Kiadó, 2006), available with commentary in English, Hungarian, German and French. He co- edited, with Vera Lampert, the Somfai Fs (Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2005), the revised English edition of Vera Lampert’s Folk Music in Bartók’s Compositions (Budapest: Helikon, 2008) and, with János Kárpáti and István Pávai, the CD- ROM Bartók and Arab Folk Music (Budapest: European Folklore Institute, 2006).

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[Antal Boronkay, Virág Büky]

Bibliography of DORRIT RÉVÉSZ


The backbone of the life's work of Dorris Révész was her career with Editio Musica Budapest Music Publishers. The bibliography contains only works published under her name and the books translated, published or edited by her for Editio Musica Budapest, and does not mention the almost five hundred other books that appeared under her guidance. She was responsible for the publishing plan and also for deciding what books readers including fledgling music students, professional musicians and seasoned musicologists should learn and gather information from. Her intellectual openness, levelheadedness and up-do-date knowledge of international music literature resulted in a plethora of books right from the 1960s in topics ranging from musical public life, music pedagogy, music history, music theory, pop and Gregorian, jazz and folk music to facsimiles and a great variety of other publications. She worked together with the most renowned Hungarian music historians whose papers were regularly published by Editio Musica Budapest. At the same time, using Bookseller and other news sources and also her connections with the most distinguished university publishers she could pick the most relevant and possibly the best foreign books, whose translations were also made under her professional and linguistic supervision. Not many can match the service she did to Hungarian music culture.
In the Preface to the Bibliography her life's work is applauded by music historian Antal Boronkay, the present managing director and former editor of Editio Musica Budapest, a close colleague of Révész for many decades.


Dorrit Révész (1934–2008) was a student of Dénes Bartha, Bence Szabolcsi, Lajos Bárdos, Rezső Kókai and others between 1953 and 1958 at the Department of Musicology of the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. She defended her thesis entitled Some Questions of This Century’s Music (draft) in 1959. Between 1959 and 1990 she was an editor, from 1968 onwards editor in chief of Editio Musica Budapest Music Publishers. From her retirement until her death she worked together with her husband, László Somfai in the Bartók Archives of the Institute of Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. She was the editor in chief of the book series, Bartók’s Writings, and also participated in the compilation of the sample volumes of a planned series entitled Complete Critical Edition of Béla Bartók’s Musical Works both as volume  publisher (Sonata for Violin and Piano 1- 2.) and as an editor (Cantata Profana, Concerto for Orchestra, Songs for Voice and Piano, Folk Song Arrangements for Voice and Piano, String Quartets, etc.). Apart from her scientific and editorial works her translations and publications made from essential and state of the art music books also bear paramount importance.

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„C- F- E- B-A-C- H” Fughetta by C. P. E. Bach


There is an unpublished manuscript in the Brussels Conservatory, called Miscellanea Musica (B Bc 5895), which contains various compositional sketches, contrapuntal studies, thoroughbass exercises, and modulation and chord-progression schemes by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. In this material we find a short five-part fughetta, written on a theme made from the initials of the “initialized” name [Filippo] of the composer. The analysis of this special little piece is the subject of the essay.


Katalin Komlós, musicologist and fortepiano recitalist, is Professor of Music Theory at the Liszt University
of Music, Budapest. She received her PhD in musicology from Cornell University. Professor Komlós has written extensively on the history of 18th- century keyboard instruments and styles. Her book Fortepianos and their Music was published by Oxford University Press in 1995; the Hungarian translation (Fortepianók és zenéjük) by Gondolat Kiadó, Budapest, 2005.

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Writing Music for Film – Freely: Hoellering and Lajtha


This short presentation explores one of the most neglected fields in Lajtha research: the composer's film music. It focuses particularly on his collaboration with the Austrian director Georg Höllering (George Hoellering, 1897-1980), providing new information based on research done in London and Budapest. An examination of their three joint films (Hortobágy, 1936; Murder in the Cathedral, 1951; Shapes and Forms, 1949), as well as letters and other documents proves that Lajtha enjoyed the mutual respect of the director and the writer, and thus was ensured complete artistic freedom in his work with them. Lajtha's film music is not merely illustrative program music, but can stand on its own artistic merit, and as such represents an important part of the Lajtha-oeuvre.


Emőke Tari Solymosi, born in 1961 in Budapest, received her degree in musicology from the Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. She also holds degrees in piano pedagogy and arts management. A journalist since 1987, she has taught music history at the Saint King Stephen Conservatory of Music since 1995, and at the Liszt University of Music since 2001. She began researching Lajtha’s life and works in 1988, and as a result she has lectured on Lajtha throughout Hungary as well as in Paris and Vienna. She has directed programmes about him for Hungarian radio and television, written numerous studies, articles and liner notes about his music, and is responsible for the internet database of his oeuvre. The results of her recent research into Lajtha’s opera were published at the end of 2007: „…my secret room”. The origin of the opera buffa The blue hat by László Lajtha, its aesthetic relations and music history connections. Budapest: Hagyományok Háza (Hungarian Heritage House), 2007.

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Recorders in the Sibiu Museum


In the collection of the historical section of the National Brukenthal Museum in Sibiu, Romania (old German name Hermannstadt, Hungarian name Nagyszeben) there are seven Renaissance woodwind instruments. Alongside a bass crumhorn and two shawms we find four recorders: two bassets, a bass, and a great bass. They were publicized together with photographs by Dr. Martha Bruckner in 1941 in the proceedings of the Sibiu Museum, however, they have remained unknown to modern organology; it was worth giving a more precise description in the light of recent musicological researches.
These recorders are significant for several reasons: firstly, to my knowledge, they are the only surviving historical recorders in Transylvania. Secondly, they are among the few old recorders about which we have written contemporary documents. Lastly, a comparison of them with other instruments bearing the same master's mark leads to valuable conclusions.
Three of the Sibiu recorders belonged to a set, and on the basis of their maker's mark (HIER•S•), technical details and manufacturing we could place this set in between the famous HIE•S and HIER S• sets - now in the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum - reinforcing the hypothesis that all these instruments were made by the same maker (who could be the Italian Hieronymus Bassano, one of the most famous figures in the history of the recorder).
The fourth recorder is marked with a letter “W” and a crown. The set to which it belonged probably contained a bass with extension: curiously the fragments of the typical key of this bass survived on the bass of the HIER•S• set, as a comparison of the keys with a bass recorder now in Vienna shows. The same “W-and-crown” marks are on the Sibiu and Prague shawms; all these instruments could be of south-German origin.


János Bali (1963) is active as a conductor and recorder player. With his vocal ensemble, the A:N:S Chorus, he has recorded several masses by Obrecht and Agricola. He teaches recorder, historical performance practice, and improvisation at the Liszt University of Music, Budapest and at the University of Miskolc. He has written a book on the recorder, and edited several volumes of recorder music. He is the editor of the works of György Kurtág at Editio Musica Budapest. As a composer, he has done a series of semi- improvised avantgarde operas with children.

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The Heavenly Length of Short Novels: Interpretative Possibilities of Intertextuality in Schumann’s Works


The study deals with the interpretational possibility of some early piano works by Robert Schumann. His attitude both as critic and composer may allow us to use imagination on his work and therefore we can find „heavenly length” in his works as well as in the novels by Jean Paul. The study is primarily concerned with intertextuality, which Schumann often used, and tries to analyze the strategy of its usage. It is important to know where these intertextualities are localized within the composition and in what way they are different from the original. Differences in tonality and/or melodic structure, or the lack of difference can be equally telling. By concerning ourselves with these points, we can read deeply his works and thus become a „secret listener” of him.


Yusuke Nakahara was born in Japan. He is now studying musicology at the Liszt University of Music in Budapest. He has a wide range of interests in music from the 15th to the 20th century, but especially in the notation of Renaissance music, the musical meanings of 18th-19th century music, and 19th- 20th century Hungarian music. He is currently researching Bartók’s Mikrokosmos for his forthcoming graduation thesis.

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